Our aim was to study the clinical outcome of diisocyanate-induced asthma. The main effect of toluene is on the brain and nervous system, but animals exposed to moderate or high levels of toluene also show harmful effects in their liver, kidneys, and lungs and impaired immune function. Toluene is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant, and a skin and mucous membrane irritant – severe dermatitis may result from its drying and defatting action. I.A. Methods. Free. Potential Health Effects . We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic toluene exposure on cardiac rhythm. Toluene poisoning principally occurs through inhalation, either by intentional abuse or accidentally in the industrial setting, given its widespread use in the synthesis of organic solvents. The environmental air levels (TWA) of toluene was 88 ppm for the exposed workers and 13 ppm for the controls. Symptoms arise due to severe hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis, most prominent being weakness and paralysis, as well as neurological deficits and gastrointestinal irritation. It is also absorbed via inhalation, and to a lesser degree, through the skin. Focal degenerative liver changes were observed in both sexes of both species. Toluene is the main component of organic solvents and is blamed for the acute and chronic toxic neurologic effects of solvent inhalation. CNS dysfunction, attention deficits, minor craniofacial and limb anomalies, and developmental delay were observed in the children of pregnant women exposed to toluene or to mixed solvents during solvent abuse. Health Effects Absorption/Metabolism Toluene is absorbed almost completely from the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. Chronic intermittent toluene (CIT) exposure throughout adolescence for up to 8 weeks did not alter the behavioral response to acute ethanol or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood, although an age-dependent effect on ethanol consumption was observed (p < 0.05). Source; PubMed; Authors: Swee Cheng Foo. Foo,Jeyaratnam,Koh Table2 Bloodtolueneconcentrations ofexposedworkers, controls, andTWAtoluenein air Tolueneinblood TWAtoluene in air (mg/i) (ppm) Exposed(30) 1-25 +0-37 88 +3-0 Controls(30) 0-16 +0-06 13 +4-0 Toluene in blood was linearly correlated to the TWAtoluene concentration in air. Toluene products are abused via inhalation for their intoxicating effects. A 46-year-old member asked: what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on the health of a person? No effects of toluene exposure were found on absolute and relative weight of kidney, liver or brain. A … Chronic Effects (Noncancer): No information is available regarding the long-term effects of toluene-2,4-diamine in humans. In the chronic toxicity study using 600 or 1200 ppm toluene body weight was slightly lower than control at 1200 ppm during the second year of the study. In chronic misuse, most of the volatile substances produce memory impairment, loss of smell, and neurological changes. Dr. Ed Kaplan answered. Chronic effects. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of toluene S C Foo, J Jeyaratnam, D Koh Abstract Neurobehavioural tests were undertaken by 30 female workers exposed to toluene and mat ched controls with low occupational exposure to toluene. The environmental air levels (TWA) of toluene was 88 ppm … We recently reported a neurologic syn- mean age was 30 (6.4 S.D.) Greater than 75 percent is eliminated within 12 hours after exposure. years; five were Hispanic, drome in 20 chronic abusers of toluene-based spray paint Caucasian, and two Black. Misused volatile substances primarily affect the CNS, which is vulnerable to long-term toxic effects. 90,000 U.S. doctors in 147 specialties are here to answer your questions or offer you advice, prescriptions, and more. Experiment I was designed to assess the effects of chronic toluene exposure on sleep. It is used in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and Both liver function and pathology did not differ between treatment groups. Overview Health effects Environmental effects Sources of emissions References Description The majority of toluene is used as a component of petrol. Chronic Exposure. Chronic inhalation exposure to toluene causes irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, sore throat, dizziness, headache, and difficulty with sleep. August 1990; British journal of industrial medicine 47(7):480-4; DOI: 10.1136/oem.47.7.480. Send thanks to the doctor. Toluene is not stored in the body. are poorly defined. Inhaled toluene is rapidly absorbed by the lungs, from where it easily enters the highly vascularized lipid-rich brain. D) According to the 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey, as many as 25,353 employees in 2,028 plants are potentially exposed to vinyl toluene in the US. The effects of toluene on animals are similar to those seen in humans. This study evaluates the Chronic effects on the central nervous system of exposure to low concentrations of toluene (TWA < 20 ppm) on workers in a rotogravure plant. Animal studies do not indicate that toluene exposure results in reproductive effects. The severity of nephropathy was slightly increased in exposed female rats. Chronic neurobehaviour effects of toluene. The acute phase effects of toluene on the brain have been investigated in this study using rabbit brain via histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. 1990 July; 47(7): 480–484. Le toluène, également appelé méthylbenzène ou phénylméthane est un hydrocarbure aromatique sous la forme d'un liquide transparent, très répandu et utilisé comme produit de départ industriel ou comme solvant.Sa manipulation comporte des risques pour la santé de l’utilisateur. In 1976-1992 245 new cases of asthma induced by diisocyanates were diagnosed, caused by hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in 39%, diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in 39%, and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in 17% of the cases. Neurobehavioural tests were undertaken by 30 female workers exposed to toluene and matched controls with low occupational exposure to toluene. Ninety-eight male workers from a selection pool of 107 (92%) were examined neuropsychologically using a Cognitive Function Scanner, and neurologically by computerized methods measuring co-ordination ability, tremor and … toluene side effects. The toluene in blood concentrations for the exposed … It is also used in paints, lacquers, inks, adhesives, rubber, and cleaning agents. In experimental situations it has exhibited reproductive effects. C) Vinyl toluene has been shown in laboratory experiments to be a teratogen. Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD) Substance Name — Toluene CASRN — 108-88-3 Section I.A. It is used to manufacture benzene, urethane raw materials, and other organic chemicals. Chronic toluene exposures at less than 200 ppm have been associated with headache, fatigue, and nausea. Animals in the control group (n=10) and chronic toluene expo-sure group (n=10) were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.) S C Foo, J Jeyaratnam, D Koh; Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore. This review includes relevant material published through June 2016 and is a technical review of those studies specifically applicable to developing non-cancer acute, 8-hour, and chronic inhalation RELs for toluene. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of toluene. Leukemia: Risk is leukemia and other bone marrow diseases. Anxiety, fatigue, and insomnia may last several days. PMCID: PMC1035211. Children may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene because of their variability in toluene metabolism compared to adults. The regression equation is Y = 0-086 +0-013XandR =0-90. Methods: We also examined the protective effects of ebselen against toluen exposure. In this study, 40 workers in the polishing industry with more than 3 months of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents including toluene and 38 control subjects working in other fields who were matched by age, sex, smoking, habits, and living accommodation were investigated. Toluene is responsible not only for instant inebriation but also for devastating neurotoxicity and death in the chronic abusers. The effects of chronic toluene exposure [3000 p.p.m. Abstract. Experiments have shown mutations. Gasoline, containing up to 7% toluene by weight, represents the most significant source of toluene used in this country. A total of 20 male rabbits were used as control and experimental groups. Chronic animal studies have reported liver injury to rats and mice. At the time of clinical evalua! for 4 h (09:00-11:00, 13:00-15:00)] every day for 3 weeks on immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis, in the rat forebrain were studied. Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects . Chronic neurobehavioural effects of toluene. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of toluene. and mounted in a ste-reotaxic frame (David Kopff Instruments, Munich). The effects of chronic exposure to toluene were attending a toxic vapor rehabilitation program. To address this, we investigated effects of adolescent chronic intermittent toluene (CIT) inhalation on gene expression and DNA methylation profiles within the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which undergoes maturation throughout adolescence and has been implicated in toluene‐induced cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic toluene inhalation in high concentration on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructural changes in the sciatic nerves of rats. The effects of acute and chronic toluene exposure on the hypnotic effect, the righting reflex latencies and the blood and tissue toluene contents were studied in rats during development. Chronic misusers usually have decreased sensory capacities due to neurological damage. 4. 8 Myriad accounts of cases of acute and chronic toluene-induced encephalopathy exist and occur in the setting of accidental or intentional inhalation. (PMID:2383518 PMCID:PMC1035211) Full Text Citations ; BioEntities ; Related Articles ; External Links ; Br J Ind Med. No long-term effects due to acute toluene exposure have been reported. The effects of toluene and dioxane inhalations on the intensity of free radical oxidation in rat ovaries and brain cortex were studied. Toluene is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant ("glue sniffing"), likely on account of its euphoric and dissociative effects. 38 years experience Hematology and Oncology. 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