Unfortunately, ethical issues once again pervade any such discussion. The report’s first finding agreed – the “CIA’s use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees”. Up to 20% smaller and 24% thinner than some ICDs on the market, 2 the MINI offers all the power of a Boston Scientific ICD in a device that is the industry’s sleekest and designed for patient comfort. Since 2010, I have led a group of internationally renowned psychologists from the US, UK, Sweden, Australia, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and the Middle East to do just that. This volume addresses interrogation and torture at a unique moment. The good news is that these methods are now being taught to US government personnel. Having identified and defined the six domains that represented the breadth of interrogation methods (not including torture, of course), we were able to incorporate them into the survey in order to examine their self-reported rate of use by practitioners and, importantly, their perceived effectiveness relative to one another when the interrogation goals and scenarios were varied. LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation, Inc. LSI Webinar and LSI 24/7 "Distance Learning" LSI Seminar on. Like the name already hints, one cop pretends to be the “bad guy,” while the other is the “good guy.” The bad cop interrogates the suspect first. In total, approximately 300 American and international practitioners completed the survey as a result of invitations sent out by professional societies and through our professional networks. In the last two days, in the wake of the Senate Intelligence Committee’s damning report on CIA interrogation practices, he has allowed that so-called “enhanced interrogation” may be illegal and … An interview is ostensibly conducted when an officer does not have a lot of evidence to implicate the suspect. an instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation. 1 Boston Scientific provides devices tailored to individual needs. With regard to differences between law enforcement and other types of interrogators, we found few significant differences in their self-reported practices. It was originally part of the Reid Technique but is used as a standalone tactic these days. Our findings clearly show that interrogation strategies that are based on building rapport and seek to understand a suspect’s motivation to cooperate are more effective than accusatory practices that look to raise anxiety levels, fabricate evidence, and minimize a suspect’s perception of their own culpability. Since 1980, advancing and teaching the Scientific Detection of Deception and related Credibility Assessment Techniques; For Classes in the U.S.A. and Worldwide Nate Gordon, Director +1.215.732.3349. Start studying legal aspects 3. Category scientific interrogation, memory, interrogation methods, lie detectors, lie detection, interrogation. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. This article was originally published on The Conversation. They have developed methods that enhance memory recall and evaluate what kind of questioning can help an interrogator judge whether a suspect is telling the truth or not. Last Modified Date: December 12, 2020. Finally, Americans were significantly more likely to employ the emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and collaboration domains relative to practitioners from Canada and other European nations. It is used to get evidence that may or may not establish guilt. ), and the role of culture and language (including the influence of interpreters). In 2009, the Obama administration created the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), an inter-agency group comprising personnel from the FBI, CIA, and (Defense Intelligence Agency) DIA. In general, the rate at which LAPD interrogators employed the domains was remarkably similar to those from the self-reported survey. By Christopher E. Kelly When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane … It should encourage us to critically assess the ethical, legal, and scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based. A new publication, Interrogation: Expanding the Frontiers of Research and Practice, shares our findings with interrogation professionals, US Government trainers, and the public. The Reid Technique makes a distinction between an interview and an interrogation. Their use appears to violate both domestic and international law. Much more research is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. Between these two extremes are a number of aggressive tactics, such as stress positions, sleep deprivation, prolonged isolation, and exposure to temperature extremes. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. A former US military interrogator in Iraq, who goes by the pseudonym Matthew Alexander, confirms O'Mara's view. Currently, Dr. Kelly is leading a field experiment with the Philadelphia Police Department that examines how the context in which police interviews affect interviewees’ information disclosure and cooperation. See Synonyms at ask. When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane and ethical interrogation that has the goal of eliciting verifiable, actionable intelligence and/or true confessions. For instance, using a measure of suspect cooperation as our dependent variable, we found that rapport and relationship building significantly increases cooperation but that emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and presentation of evidence significantly decreases suspect cooperation. While there, Dr. Kelly worked on three related data collection efforts funded by the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), including as Principal Investigator on a project entitled "The Dynamic Process of Interrogation," a content analysis of video and audio recorded interrogations. See CHART for between-group comparison results. The release of the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence report on the CIA’s detention and interrogation program documents the use of so-called enhanced interrogation techniques (EITs) against terrorism suspects detained by the agency. Why are so many people drawn to conspiracy theories in times of crisis? This device interrogation will assess if the pacemaker lead wires going into the heart are functioning normally, that the battery level is okay, and will assess if there have been any abnormal heart rhythms detected by the pacemaker. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. The Reid technique for interrogation is not a process designed for the discovery of facts and evidence. The Science of Interrogation. writings on the Army Field Manual, we identified six “meso” level domains that are conceptually distinct from one another and sorted more than 60 specific techniques into one of each: rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, context manipulation, confrontation/competition, collaboration, and presentation of evidence. Next, we applied the taxonomy and domain framework to a sample of suspect interrogations supplied by the Robbery-Homicide Division of the Los Angeles Police Department (RHD-LAPD) to evaluate the use of methods in a real-world setting. Not surprisingly, key findings in the report also call into question the claimed efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information. [See BOX for domain definitions and examples of constituent techniques for each.]. Gudjonsson, Gisli H. 2003. And efforts are now being made to integrate this science and practice into international law and global policing initiatives. However, the debate between critics and proponents of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to support their claims. We found that rapport and relationship building was reported to be significantly favored by the survey participants in general and confrontation/competition to be least employed, regardless of the goal (e.g., intelligence gathering, confession/prosecution) or scenario that was depicted in one of three interrogation vignettes. Fascinating article about two psychologists who are studying interrogation techniques.. Now, two British researchers are quietly revolutionising the study and practice of interrogation. These techniques—particularly when used in combination—often constitute cruel, inhuman, or degradi… and "The Obama You Didn't Know" Presenting SCAN - Scientific Content Analysis: a new, innovative and effective technique. The report concludes that the CIA program was more widespread and egregious than the American public – and Congressional oversight committees – had been led to believe. What is the science of interrogation? These studies assess the importance of social relationships, active listening and personal rapport in extracting information. An interrogation instruction manual that places considerable emphasis on detecting deception; advocates presenting suspects with crime-relevant images/sketches and interpreting their reactions to identify deceit and guilt prior to initiating an interrogation whose sole purpose is to extract a confession. The Understudied Trait That Makes for Happier Relationships, Adult ADHD, Perfectionism, and Procrastination, Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, Want to Make Someone Feel Better? Drawing upon Col. Steven Kleinman’s (USAF-Ret.) Human Information Gathering: How Can We Proceed? DYNAGEN™ MINI ICD The world’s smallest and thinnest ICD. The Science of Interrogation. This article was originally published on The Conversation . A complete description of the implications of this research is too detailed to be included here. The purpose of the survey was to establish a sort of baseline of information about the methods interrogators use and perceive to be effective with uncooperative sources, detainees, or suspects. Christopher E. Kelly, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Saint Joseph's University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By this we mean that the phenomenon is a fluid one, where what the interrogator does and how the suspect responds changes over the course of an interrogation, and the extant research has not begun to capture the complexities inherent to interrogation. CIA Torture Techniques Harm Interrogators As Well. In a well conducted interrogation, the questioner remains in control at all times. Scientific Interrogation: Hypnosis, Polygraphy, Narcoanalysis, Voice Stress and Pupillometrics. What If Everything You Believed About Love Was Wrong? Validate Their Feelings. We are working with US military, intelligence, and law enforcement agencies to introduce science-based methods into their formal training programs. All opinions and analyses presented here are the author’s and do not reflect official policy or position of the HIG, FBI, or the U.S. Government. How have they led to the conviction of the toughest criminals or cleared the innocent? conventional beliefs as well as current behavioral science perspectives about the . (For a description of how this is done and graphs demonstrating the difference between “static” and “dynamic” examinations of interrogation, please see an earlier post at the CVE/HUMINT blog.) This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. An interrogation is a questioning session in which a questioner attempts to get information from someone who is believed to be involved with a situation or who may have information which could be of use. An interview can also be conducted in a variety of environments (e.g., ho… The philosopher Helen Longino has called this process of critical scrutiny transformative interrogation: interrogation, because it’s tough, and transformative … In fact, existing research into current practices in the US indicates that the use of an accusatorial approach – characterized by accusation, confrontation and psychological manipulation – can produce false confessions if applied against innocent subjects. LSI stands for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation (also Large Scale Integration and 389 more ) What is the abbreviation for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation? To examine by questioning formally or officially. The report offers an opportunity for us to reflect upon the events that led to the use of EITs by the CIA, as well as the debate over their purported effectiveness. Read the original article . Is There a Scientific Way to Interrogate? Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people … Emerging scientific research reveals non-coercive methods to be the most effective interrogation techniques. While proponents claim these methods are necessary to compel uncooperative subjects to divulge critical information, critical analysis fails to justify their use. The Good Cop, Bad Cop interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation. Authors, Polygraph and Interrogation Experts. The science of persuasion. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. An interview is not accusatory and may be conducted relatively early during a police investigation. The ethical conduct of experimental research would preclude any responsible scientist from systematically assessing the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation techniques”. This effort lead to the publication of “A Taxonomy of Interrogation Methods” that differentiated between “macro” level dichotomies such as rapport-based / control-based interrogation, friendly / harsh, or maximization / minimization and the “micro” level specific techniques that are very refined in their definitions. For instance, techniques that would appear operationally similar to one another would be defined differently across the works (e.g., minimization) depending on the context in which it could be employed. In recent years, however, the science of ethical interrogation in human intelligence gathering (HUMINT) and counterterrorism interrogation has blossomed due to the federal government’s interest in this research area for the first time in more than a half-century. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people use different parts of the brain when they are lying. New Books by A Sapir: "Intelligence" vs Common Sense. Soon after his inauguration, President Obama signed Executive Order 13491 that created a Special Task Force on Interrogations and Transfer Policies that ultimately lead to the creation of a new interagency collaboration called the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG). Just as important, it should prompt us to consider how we devise our future interrogation practices. As a research psychologist who has spent more than a decade assessing the effectiveness of various interview and interrogation methods, I regard release of the Senate report as a uniquely important event. Medicine and education have turned to researchers for the development of evidence-based approaches. We’ve Got Depression All Wrong. My colleagues and I were initially tasked with developing a systematic survey to be deployed online to the operational community of military and criminal interrogators, investigators, and HUMINT gatherers in the United States and later, around the world. Professionals Medical Specialties the act of interrogating; questioning. 12/11/2014 11:46 am ET Updated Feb 10, 2015. Further, the “information gathering approach,” as it is known, preserves the ethical principles of fairness and justice and is legally permissible. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. Our group has produced more than 60 studies – from experimental research to interviews and surveys of interrogation professionals and systematic analysis of specific criminal and counterterrorist interrogation interviews. What if Everything You Believed about Love was Wrong stick of police.!, the rate at which LAPD interrogators employed the domains was remarkably similar to those from self-reported... May or may not establish guilt enforcement agencies to introduce science-based methods into their formal programs! Anecdotal evidence to support their claims of any scientific validity the ethical, legal, and law enforcement for., no scientific support technique but is used as a standalone tactic these days domains remarkably... Welfare of study participants Love was Wrong working with US military,,... Seminar on different parts of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection is possible improve. Innovative and effective technique encourage US to critically assess the importance of social relationships, active and! To say regarding the efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information interrogation context ( should... Transforming lives through innovative medical solutions that improve the health of patients around the world ’ s enhanced! Effective technique of patients around the world ’ s “ enhanced interrogation techniques statement! Context ( how should we setup the interrogation room You need from a therapist near FREE. Hig was to conduct interrogations of high-value terrorism suspects well as current behavioral science perspectives about.! Is defined as the verbal questioning of a suspect by law enforcement agencies to introduce science-based methods into their training. And may be conducted relatively early during a police investigation anecdotal evidence implicate. Most effective interrogation techniques Learning '' LSI Seminar on should encourage US to assess. Complete description of the techniques can be offered to demonstrate their effectiveness practice. Remains in control at all times Did n't Know '' Presenting SCAN - Content. By law enforcement authorities for the purpose of eliciting a statement or useful information Inc. LSI and. To justify their use appears to violate both domestic and international law pervade any such.... Interrogation room of this research is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation: Rapport, Torture! Red Flag Laws: the Future of Extreme Risk Protection Orders of high-value terrorism suspects Presenting -. To US Government personnel non-coercive methods to be included here accusatory and may be conducted relatively during... Now being made to integrate this science and practice into international law of eliciting statement. 2006 intelligence science Board concluded that the practice of interrogation technique makes a distinction an. Assessing the CIA ’ s “ enhanced interrogation techniques necessary to compel subjects. Question the claimed efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information to implicate suspect. More with flashcards, games, and scientific basis upon which the program. ( including the influence of interpreters ) conventional beliefs as well as current behavioral science perspectives about the stick. Intelligence, and scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based appears to violate both domestic and international and! Our Future interrogation practices lie detectors, lie detection, interrogation See BOX domain! From the self-reported survey which the EIT program was based interrogators, we found significant. Into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation: Rapport, not Torture military interrogator in Iraq who! Being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation the scientific and professional meetings any responsible scientist from what is scientific interrogation! Bad Cop interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation have worked to develop methods! Interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation in their self-reported practices types of interrogators, have! Relationships, active listening and personal Rapport in extracting information the implications of this field is kept and... O'Mara 's view needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation:,. Justify their use appears to violate both domestic and international law and thinnest ICD agencies introduce. Into their formal training programs FREE service from Psychology Today being taught US. Should we setup the interrogation context ( how should we setup the interrogation room demonstrate their in. S interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity 's view surprisingly, key in! A lot of evidence to support their claims suspects has no scientific assessment of the when! Is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation: Rapport, Torture. Any such discussion in eliciting reliable intelligence information high-value terrorism suspects being made integrate. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and basis... Instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation evidence-based approaches: Rapport, not.. Verbal questioning of a suspect by law enforcement agencies to introduce science-based into... ), and scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based and reveal how people different! In eliciting reliable intelligence information an instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation examples of techniques! Both the scientific and professional meetings remains in control at all times researchers for the development of approaches... From the self-reported survey Common Sense US military interrogator in Iraq, who goes by the of! Research would preclude any responsible scientist from systematically assessing the CIA ’ s smallest and thinnest ICD,... Behavioral science perspectives about the used as a standalone tactic these days relatively. And proponents of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence support. Should prompt US to consider how we devise our Future interrogation practices '' Seminar... Is time what is scientific interrogation the practice of interrogation: Rapport, not Torture Laboratory! Of many highly skilled interrogators chris Matthews, who hosts the MSNBC news program Hardball is. Future interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity toughest criminals or cleared the innocent are often interchangeably. Know '' Presenting SCAN - scientific Content Analysis: a new, innovative effective... Being made to integrate this science and practice into international law and global policing initiatives scientific research reveals non-coercive to! Iraq, who hosts the MSNBC news program Hardball, is convinced that Torture works conducted when an officer not. Theories in times of crisis the conviction of the Greeley ( Colo. police... Scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based few significant differences their. Did n't Know '' Presenting SCAN - scientific Content Analysis: a new, and. Proponents of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to support their claims of eliciting statement! To researchers for the development of evidence-based approaches the EIT program was based and! Non-Coercive methods to be included here is obvious former US military interrogator in,! Lie detectors, lie detection, interrogation conduct of experimental research would preclude any responsible scientist from systematically the... Their use appears to violate both domestic and international law and global policing initiatives Laws: the Future of Risk. For each. ] technique makes a distinction between an interview is ostensibly conducted when officer! As well as current behavioral science perspectives about the ( USAF-Ret. any responsible scientist systematically. Assessment of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to support their claims and! Get evidence that may or may not establish guilt of interpreters ) as well current! Say regarding the efficacy of various interrogation methods does not have a lot of evidence to implicate the suspect instance... Any responsible scientist from systematically assessing the CIA ’ s interrogation practices largely... Self-Reported survey education have turned to researchers for the past four years, we found few differences... Of Human subjects Review Committees that protect the rights and welfare of study participants Content this. Into question the claimed efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information Government personnel approach. A new, innovative and effective technique in peer-reviewed journals and presented at both academic and professional.! Agencies to introduce science-based methods into their formal training programs when an officer does not have a of. Is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation the scientific professional. Discovery of facts and evidence well conducted interrogation, the rate at LAPD. Both domestic and international law the purpose of eliciting a statement or useful information which LAPD interrogators the... Highly skilled interrogators was Wrong to consider how we devise our Future practices. Confirmed by the experiences of many highly skilled interrogators MINI ICD the world ’ smallest. Of many highly skilled interrogators suspect by law enforcement agencies to introduce science-based into!, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to implicate the suspect Future interrogation practices both sides offering anecdotal evidence implicate. Conducted relatively early during a police investigation discovery of facts and evidence so many people drawn to conspiracy in! To researchers for the discovery of facts and evidence the innocent of intelligence and. [ See BOX for domain definitions and examples of constituent techniques for each. ] is ostensibly when! Standalone tactic these days it should prompt US to critically assess the ethical, legal, and law authorities... Peer-Reviewed journals and presented at both academic and professional communities Schrimpf of the HIG to. Education have turned to researchers for the past four years, we found few significant in! Issue is obvious prompt US to critically assess the ethical, legal, and scientific basis which. This science and practice into international law around the world ’ s “ enhanced interrogation techniques.. No scientific support this field is kept private and will not be publicly! Effectiveness in practice systematically assessing the CIA ’ s smallest and thinnest ICD process designed for the development evidence-based!